题 如何使用java.net.URLConnection来触发和处理HTTP请求


用于 java.net.URLConnection 经常被问到这里,和 Oracle教程 是  简明扼要。

该教程基本上只显示了如何触发GET请求并读取响应。它没有解释如何使用它来执行POST请求,设置请求标头,读取响应标头,处理cookie,提交HTML表单,上传文件等。

那么,我该如何使用呢 java.net.URLConnection 解雇和处理“高级”HTTP请求?


1762


起源




答案:


首先是免责声明:发布的代码片段都是基本示例。你需要处理琐碎的事情 IOExceptions和 RuntimeException喜欢 NullPointerExceptionArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 并自己配合。


准备

我们首先需要至少知道URL和字符集。参数是可选的,取决于功能要求。

String url = "http://example.com";
String charset = "UTF-8";  // Or in Java 7 and later, use the constant: java.nio.charset.StandardCharsets.UTF_8.name()
String param1 = "value1";
String param2 = "value2";
// ...

String query = String.format("param1=%s&param2=%s", 
     URLEncoder.encode(param1, charset), 
     URLEncoder.encode(param2, charset));

查询参数必须在 name=value 格式和连接 &。你通常也会 URL编码 使用指定charset的查询参数 URLEncoder#encode()

String#format() 只是为了方便。当我需要String连接运算符时,我更喜欢它 + 超过两次。


射击a HTTP GET 请求(可选)查询参数

这是一项微不足道的任务。这是默认的请求方法。

URLConnection connection = new URL(url + "?" + query).openConnection();
connection.setRequestProperty("Accept-Charset", charset);
InputStream response = connection.getInputStream();
// ...

应使用任何查询字符串连接到URL ?。该 Accept-Charset header可能会提示服务器参数的编码方式。如果你没有发送任何查询字符串,那么你可以离开 Accept-Charset 标题走了。如果您不需要设置任何标题,那么您甚至可以使用 URL#openStream() 快捷方法。

InputStream response = new URL(url).openStream();
// ...

无论哪种方式,如果对方是一个 HttpServlet那么它 doGet() 方法将被调用,参数将可用 HttpServletRequest#getParameter()

出于测试目的,您可以将响应主体打印到stdout,如下所示:

try (Scanner scanner = new Scanner(response)) {
    String responseBody = scanner.useDelimiter("\\A").next();
    System.out.println(responseBody);
}

射击a HTTP POST 请求查询参数

设置 URLConnection#setDoOutput() 至 true 隐式设置请求方法为POST。 Web表单的标准HTTP POST是类型的 application/x-www-form-urlencoded 其中查询字符串被写入请求主体。

URLConnection connection = new URL(url).openConnection();
connection.setDoOutput(true); // Triggers POST.
connection.setRequestProperty("Accept-Charset", charset);
connection.setRequestProperty("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded;charset=" + charset);

try (OutputStream output = connection.getOutputStream()) {
    output.write(query.getBytes(charset));
}

InputStream response = connection.getInputStream();
// ...

注意:每当您想以编程方式提交HTML表单时,请不要忘记使用 name=value 任何一对 <input type="hidden"> 元素进入查询字符串当然也是 name=value 对的 <input type="submit"> 您想要以编程方式“按”的元素(因为通常在服务器端使用它来区分是否按下按钮,如果是,则按哪一个)。

你也可以施放获得的 URLConnection 至 HttpURLConnection 并使用它 HttpURLConnection#setRequestMethod() 代替。但是,如果您尝试使用连接进行输出,则仍需要设置 URLConnection#setDoOutput() 至 true

HttpURLConnection httpConnection = (HttpURLConnection) new URL(url).openConnection();
httpConnection.setRequestMethod("POST");
// ...

无论哪种方式,如果对方是一个 HttpServlet那么它 doPost() 方法将被调用,参数将可用 HttpServletRequest#getParameter()


实际上触发HTTP请求

您可以使用显式触发HTTP请求 URLConnection#connect(),但是当您想要获取有关HTTP响应的任何信息(例如使用响应正文)时,将根据需要自动触发请求 URLConnection#getInputStream()等等。上面的例子确实如此,所以 connect() 电话实际上是多余的。


收集HTTP响应信息

  1. HTTP响应状态

    你需要一个 HttpURLConnection 这里。如有必要,先把它扔掉。

    int status = httpConnection.getResponseCode();
    
  2. HTTP响应标头

    for (Entry<String, List<String>> header : connection.getHeaderFields().entrySet()) {
        System.out.println(header.getKey() + "=" + header.getValue());
    }
    
  3. HTTP响应编码

    当。。。的时候 Content-Type 包含一个 charset 参数,然后响应主体可能是基于文本的,我们希望用服务器端指定的字符编码处理响应主体。

    String contentType = connection.getHeaderField("Content-Type");
    String charset = null;
    
    for (String param : contentType.replace(" ", "").split(";")) {
        if (param.startsWith("charset=")) {
            charset = param.split("=", 2)[1];
            break;
        }
    }
    
    if (charset != null) {
        try (BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(response, charset))) {
            for (String line; (line = reader.readLine()) != null;) {
                // ... System.out.println(line) ?
            }
        }
    } else {
        // It's likely binary content, use InputStream/OutputStream.
    }
    

维持会话

服务器端会话通常由cookie支持。某些Web表单要求您已登录和/或由会话跟踪。你可以使用 CookieHandler 用于维护cookie的API。你需要准备一个 CookieManager 用一个 CookiePolicy 的 ACCEPT_ALL 在发送所有HTTP请求之前。

// First set the default cookie manager.
CookieHandler.setDefault(new CookieManager(null, CookiePolicy.ACCEPT_ALL));

// All the following subsequent URLConnections will use the same cookie manager.
URLConnection connection = new URL(url).openConnection();
// ...

connection = new URL(url).openConnection();
// ...

connection = new URL(url).openConnection();
// ...

请注意,众所周知,这并不总是在所有情况下都能正常工作。如果它失败了,那么最好是手动收集和设置cookie头。你基本上需要抓住所有 Set-Cookie 来自登录响应或第一个的标头 GET 请求然后通过后续请求传递此信息。

// Gather all cookies on the first request.
URLConnection connection = new URL(url).openConnection();
List<String> cookies = connection.getHeaderFields().get("Set-Cookie");
// ...

// Then use the same cookies on all subsequent requests.
connection = new URL(url).openConnection();
for (String cookie : cookies) {
    connection.addRequestProperty("Cookie", cookie.split(";", 2)[0]);
}
// ...

split(";", 2)[0] 是否有摆脱与服务器端无关的cookie属性 expirespath等等,你也可以使用 cookie.substring(0, cookie.indexOf(';')) 代替 split()


流模式

HttpURLConnection 将默认缓冲 整个 在实际发送之前请求正文,无论您是否使用自己设置了固定的内容长度 connection.setRequestProperty("Content-Length", contentLength);。这可能会导致 OutOfMemoryException每当您同时发送大型POST请求(例如上传文件)时。为了避免这种情况,你想设置 HttpURLConnection#setFixedLengthStreamingMode()

httpConnection.setFixedLengthStreamingMode(contentLength);

但是如果事先确实不知道内容长度,那么你可以通过设置来利用分块流模式 HttpURLConnection#setChunkedStreamingMode() 因此。这将设置HTTP Transfer-Encoding 标题为 chunked 这将强制请求正文以块的形式发送。以下示例将以1KB的块发送正文。

httpConnection.setChunkedStreamingMode(1024);

用户代理

它可能会发生 请求返回意外的响应,而它与真正的Web浏览器一起正常工作。服务器端可能会阻止基于的请求 User-Agent 请求标头。该 URLConnection 默认情况下会将其设置为 Java/1.6.0_19 最后一部分显然是JRE版本。您可以按如下方式覆盖:

connection.setRequestProperty("User-Agent", "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/41.0.2228.0 Safari/537.36"); // Do as if you're using Chrome 41 on Windows 7.

使用来自的用户代理字符串 最近的浏览器


错误处理

如果HTTP响应代码是 4nn (客户端错误)或 5nn (服务器错误),那么你可能想要阅读 HttpURLConnection#getErrorStream() 查看服务器是否发送了任何有用的错误信息。

InputStream error = ((HttpURLConnection) connection).getErrorStream();

如果HTTP响应代码为-1,则连接和响应处理出现问题。该 HttpURLConnection 实现在较旧的JRE中有点错误,保持连接活着。你可能想通过设置关闭它 http.keepAlive 系统属性 false。您可以在应用程序的开头以编程方式执行此操作:

System.setProperty("http.keepAlive", "false");

上传文件

你通常会用 multipart/form-data 编码混合POST内容(二进制和字符数据)。编码更详细地描述于 RFC2388

String param = "value";
File textFile = new File("/path/to/file.txt");
File binaryFile = new File("/path/to/file.bin");
String boundary = Long.toHexString(System.currentTimeMillis()); // Just generate some unique random value.
String CRLF = "\r\n"; // Line separator required by multipart/form-data.
URLConnection connection = new URL(url).openConnection();
connection.setDoOutput(true);
connection.setRequestProperty("Content-Type", "multipart/form-data; boundary=" + boundary);

try (
    OutputStream output = connection.getOutputStream();
    PrintWriter writer = new PrintWriter(new OutputStreamWriter(output, charset), true);
) {
    // Send normal param.
    writer.append("--" + boundary).append(CRLF);
    writer.append("Content-Disposition: form-data; name=\"param\"").append(CRLF);
    writer.append("Content-Type: text/plain; charset=" + charset).append(CRLF);
    writer.append(CRLF).append(param).append(CRLF).flush();

    // Send text file.
    writer.append("--" + boundary).append(CRLF);
    writer.append("Content-Disposition: form-data; name=\"textFile\"; filename=\"" + textFile.getName() + "\"").append(CRLF);
    writer.append("Content-Type: text/plain; charset=" + charset).append(CRLF); // Text file itself must be saved in this charset!
    writer.append(CRLF).flush();
    Files.copy(textFile.toPath(), output);
    output.flush(); // Important before continuing with writer!
    writer.append(CRLF).flush(); // CRLF is important! It indicates end of boundary.

    // Send binary file.
    writer.append("--" + boundary).append(CRLF);
    writer.append("Content-Disposition: form-data; name=\"binaryFile\"; filename=\"" + binaryFile.getName() + "\"").append(CRLF);
    writer.append("Content-Type: " + URLConnection.guessContentTypeFromName(binaryFile.getName())).append(CRLF);
    writer.append("Content-Transfer-Encoding: binary").append(CRLF);
    writer.append(CRLF).flush();
    Files.copy(binaryFile.toPath(), output);
    output.flush(); // Important before continuing with writer!
    writer.append(CRLF).flush(); // CRLF is important! It indicates end of boundary.

    // End of multipart/form-data.
    writer.append("--" + boundary + "--").append(CRLF).flush();
}

如果对方是 HttpServlet那么它 doPost() 方法将被调用,部件将可用 HttpServletRequest#getPart() (注意,因此   getParameter() 等等!)。该 getPart() 然而,方法相对较新,它在Servlet 3.0(Glassfish 3,Tomcat 7等)中引入。在Servlet 3.0之前,您最好的选择是使用 Apache Commons FileUpload 解析一个 multipart/form-data 请求。另见 这个答案 有关FileUpload和Servelt 3.0方法的示例。


处理不受信任或配置错误的HTTPS站点

有时您需要连接HTTPS URL,可能是因为您正在编写Web scraper。在这种情况下,你可能会遇到一个 javax.net.ssl.SSLException: Not trusted server certificate 在某些HTTPS站点上,他们没有更新SSL证书,或者 java.security.cert.CertificateException: No subject alternative DNS name matching [hostname] found 要么 javax.net.ssl.SSLProtocolException: handshake alert: unrecognized_name 在一些配置错误的HTTPS站点上。

以下一次性运行 static 你的web scraper类中的初始化器应该是 HttpsURLConnection 对这些HTTPS站点更宽松,因此不再抛出这些异常。

static {
    TrustManager[] trustAllCertificates = new TrustManager[] {
        new X509TrustManager() {
            @Override
            public X509Certificate[] getAcceptedIssuers() {
                return null; // Not relevant.
            }
            @Override
            public void checkClientTrusted(X509Certificate[] certs, String authType) {
                // Do nothing. Just allow them all.
            }
            @Override
            public void checkServerTrusted(X509Certificate[] certs, String authType) {
                // Do nothing. Just allow them all.
            }
        }
    };

    HostnameVerifier trustAllHostnames = new HostnameVerifier() {
        @Override
        public boolean verify(String hostname, SSLSession session) {
            return true; // Just allow them all.
        }
    };

    try {
        System.setProperty("jsse.enableSNIExtension", "false");
        SSLContext sc = SSLContext.getInstance("SSL");
        sc.init(null, trustAllCertificates, new SecureRandom());
        HttpsURLConnection.setDefaultSSLSocketFactory(sc.getSocketFactory());
        HttpsURLConnection.setDefaultHostnameVerifier(trustAllHostnames);
    }
    catch (GeneralSecurityException e) {
        throw new ExceptionInInitializerError(e);
    }
}

最后的话

Apache HttpComponents HttpClient 是 许多 在这一切更方便:)


解析和提取HTML

如果您只需要从HTML解析和提取数据,那么最好使用类似的HTML解析器 Jsoup


2526



您应该首先放置apache链接,以便寻找解决方案的人更快地找到它;) - ZeissS
@ivanceras:如果根据此答案中的信息无法将其煮沸,请按 Ask Question 右上角的按钮。 - BalusC
@Brais:请阅读规范。该 -- 部分不是边界本身的一部分。它只是一个分隔符字符串。我已经回滚了你的无效编辑。 - BalusC
@BalusC非常感谢这么完美的教程。还请添加“关闭流/连接”之类的标题。我真的很困惑什么时候和哪个流/连接关闭。
可悲的是,在Android上它是 不 建议使用Apache HttpClient 现在和 HttpURLConnection 很残忍。 android-developers.blogspot.in/2011/09/... - yati sagade


使用HTTP时,引用它几乎总是更有用 HttpURLConnection 而不是基类 URLConnection (以来 URLConnection 当你要求时,它是一个抽象类 URLConnection.openConnection() 在HTTP URL上,无论如何你都会得到它。

然后你可以而不是依靠 URLConnection#setDoOutput(true) 隐式设置请求方法 POST 相反 httpURLConnection.setRequestMethod("POST") 有些人可能会发现更自然(并且还允许您指定其他请求方法,例如 删除,...)。

它还提供有用的HTTP常量,因此您可以执行以下操作:

int responseCode = httpURLConnection.getResponseCode();

if (responseCode == HttpURLConnection.HTTP_OK) {

84



setDoOutPut true是我的问题,它将我的GET设置为POST。谢谢 - Patrick Kafka
如果您正在尝试将数据写入输出流 必须 仍然设定 setDoOutput() 至 true 否则抛出异常(即使你 setRequestMethod("POST"))。要明确:设置 URLConnection#setDoOutput(true) 至 true 隐式设置请求方法为POST,但设置 httpURLConnection.setRequestMethod("POST") POST的确如此 不 隐含地设定 setDoOutput() 至 true。 - Tony Chan


受到关于SO的这个问题和其他问题的启发,我创建了一个最小的开源 基本-HTTP客户端 这体现了这里发现的大多数技术。

谷歌-HTTP-Java的客户端 也是一个很好的开源资源。


49



我的想法一样。但是,拥有一个仅使用URLConnection代码的准系统/简单Java库也可能会很好,这些代码将代码封装到更简单的方法来执行HTTP GET,POST等。然后可以将库编译和打包为JAR和如果不需要外部JAR,则可以在Java项目中包含Java代码中导入/使用的源代码文件。这可以通过Apache等其他库来完成,但与使用URLConnection的简单1文件类库相比,这更加痛苦。 - David
rapidvaluesolutions.com/tech_blog/... 支持HttpClient上的HttpURLConnection - Ravindra babu


HTTP URL Hits有两个选项:GET / POST

GET请求: -

HttpURLConnection.setFollowRedirects(true); // defaults to true

String url = "https://name_of_the_url";
URL request_url = new URL(url);
HttpURLConnection http_conn = (HttpURLConnection)request_url.openConnection();
http_conn.setConnectTimeout(100000);
http_conn.setReadTimeout(100000);
http_conn.setInstanceFollowRedirects(true);
System.out.println(String.valueOf(http_conn.getResponseCode()));

POST请求: -

HttpURLConnection.setFollowRedirects(true); // defaults to true

String url = "https://name_of_the_url"
URL request_url = new URL(url);
HttpURLConnection http_conn = (HttpURLConnection)request_url.openConnection();
http_conn.setConnectTimeout(100000);
http_conn.setReadTimeout(100000);
http_conn.setInstanceFollowRedirects(true);
http_conn.setDoOutput(true);
PrintWriter out = new PrintWriter(http_conn.getOutputStream());
if (urlparameter != null) {
   out.println(urlparameter);
}
out.close();
out = null;
System.out.println(String.valueOf(http_conn.getResponseCode()));

22



还有更多:PUT,DELETE,HEAD,...... - user207421
如何查看实际的JSON响应? - Surenzxx


我建议你看一下代码 kevinsawicki / http请求,它基本上是一个包装器 HttpUrlConnection 它提供了一个更简单的API,以防您只是想立即发出请求,或者您可以查看源(它不是太大)来查看连接的处理方式。

示例:制作一个 GET 请求内容类型 application/json 和一些查询参数:

// GET http://google.com?q=baseball%20gloves&size=100
String response = HttpRequest.get("http://google.com", true, "q", "baseball gloves", "size", 100)
        .accept("application/json")
        .body();
System.out.println("Response was: " + response);

20





我也对这种反应非常鼓舞。

我经常在我需要做一些HTTP的项目上,我可能不想引入很多第三方依赖(带来其他依赖等等)

我开始根据这些对话开始编写我自己的实用程序(不是任何完成的地方):

package org.boon.utils;


import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.net.HttpURLConnection;
import java.net.URL;
import java.net.URLConnection;
import java.util.Map;

import static org.boon.utils.IO.read;

public class HTTP {

然后只有一堆或静态方法。

public static String get(
        final String url) {

    Exceptions.tryIt(() -> {
        URLConnection connection;
        connection = doGet(url, null, null, null);
        return extractResponseString(connection);
    });
    return null;
}

public static String getWithHeaders(
        final String url,
        final Map<String, ? extends Object> headers) {
    URLConnection connection;
    try {
        connection = doGet(url, headers, null, null);
        return extractResponseString(connection);
    } catch (Exception ex) {
        Exceptions.handle(ex);
        return null;
    }
}

public static String getWithContentType(
        final String url,
        final Map<String, ? extends Object> headers,
        String contentType) {
    URLConnection connection;
    try {
        connection = doGet(url, headers, contentType, null);
        return extractResponseString(connection);
    } catch (Exception ex) {
        Exceptions.handle(ex);
        return null;
    }
}
public static String getWithCharSet(
        final String url,
        final Map<String, ? extends Object> headers,
        String contentType,
        String charSet) {
    URLConnection connection;
    try {
        connection = doGet(url, headers, contentType, charSet);
        return extractResponseString(connection);
    } catch (Exception ex) {
        Exceptions.handle(ex);
        return null;
    }
}

然后发布...

public static String postBody(
        final String url,
        final String body) {
    URLConnection connection;
    try {
        connection = doPost(url, null, "text/plain", null, body);
        return extractResponseString(connection);
    } catch (Exception ex) {
        Exceptions.handle(ex);
        return null;
    }
}

public static String postBodyWithHeaders(
        final String url,
        final Map<String, ? extends Object> headers,
        final String body) {
    URLConnection connection;
    try {
        connection = doPost(url, headers, "text/plain", null, body);
        return extractResponseString(connection);
    } catch (Exception ex) {
        Exceptions.handle(ex);
        return null;
    }
}



public static String postBodyWithContentType(
        final String url,
        final Map<String, ? extends Object> headers,
        final String contentType,
        final String body) {

    URLConnection connection;
    try {
        connection = doPost(url, headers, contentType, null, body);


        return extractResponseString(connection);


    } catch (Exception ex) {
        Exceptions.handle(ex);
        return null;
    }


}


public static String postBodyWithCharset(
        final String url,
        final Map<String, ? extends Object> headers,
        final String contentType,
        final String charSet,
        final String body) {

    URLConnection connection;
    try {
        connection = doPost(url, headers, contentType, charSet, body);


        return extractResponseString(connection);


    } catch (Exception ex) {
        Exceptions.handle(ex);
        return null;
    }


}

private static URLConnection doPost(String url, Map<String, ? extends Object> headers,
                                    String contentType, String charset, String body
                                    ) throws IOException {
    URLConnection connection;/* Handle output. */
    connection = new URL(url).openConnection();
    connection.setDoOutput(true);
    manageContentTypeHeaders(contentType, charset, connection);

    manageHeaders(headers, connection);


    IO.write(connection.getOutputStream(), body, IO.CHARSET);
    return connection;
}

private static void manageHeaders(Map<String, ? extends Object> headers, URLConnection connection) {
    if (headers != null) {
        for (Map.Entry<String, ? extends Object> entry : headers.entrySet()) {
            connection.setRequestProperty(entry.getKey(), entry.getValue().toString());
        }
    }
}

private static void manageContentTypeHeaders(String contentType, String charset, URLConnection connection) {
    connection.setRequestProperty("Accept-Charset", charset == null ? IO.CHARSET : charset);
    if (contentType!=null && !contentType.isEmpty()) {
        connection.setRequestProperty("Content-Type", contentType);
    }
}

private static URLConnection doGet(String url, Map<String, ? extends Object> headers,
                                    String contentType, String charset) throws IOException {
    URLConnection connection;/* Handle output. */
    connection = new URL(url).openConnection();
    manageContentTypeHeaders(contentType, charset, connection);

    manageHeaders(headers, connection);

    return connection;
}

private static String extractResponseString(URLConnection connection) throws IOException {
/* Handle input. */
    HttpURLConnection http = (HttpURLConnection)connection;
    int status = http.getResponseCode();
    String charset = getCharset(connection.getHeaderField("Content-Type"));

    if (status==200) {
        return readResponseBody(http, charset);
    } else {
        return readErrorResponseBody(http, status, charset);
    }
}

private static String readErrorResponseBody(HttpURLConnection http, int status, String charset) {
    InputStream errorStream = http.getErrorStream();
    if ( errorStream!=null ) {
        String error = charset== null ? read( errorStream ) :
            read( errorStream, charset );
        throw new RuntimeException("STATUS CODE =" + status + "\n\n" + error);
    } else {
        throw new RuntimeException("STATUS CODE =" + status);
    }
}

private static String readResponseBody(HttpURLConnection http, String charset) throws IOException {
    if (charset != null) {
        return read(http.getInputStream(), charset);
    } else {
        return read(http.getInputStream());
    }
}

private static String getCharset(String contentType) {
    if (contentType==null)  {
        return null;
    }
    String charset = null;
    for (String param : contentType.replace(" ", "").split(";")) {
        if (param.startsWith("charset=")) {
            charset = param.split("=", 2)[1];
            break;
        }
    }
    charset = charset == null ?  IO.CHARSET : charset;

    return charset;
}

反正你懂这个意思....

以下是测试:

static class MyHandler implements HttpHandler {
    public void handle(HttpExchange t) throws IOException {

        InputStream requestBody = t.getRequestBody();
        String body = IO.read(requestBody);
        Headers requestHeaders = t.getRequestHeaders();
        body = body + "\n" + copy(requestHeaders).toString();
        t.sendResponseHeaders(200, body.length());
        OutputStream os = t.getResponseBody();
        os.write(body.getBytes());
        os.close();
    }
}


@Test
public void testHappy() throws Exception {

    HttpServer server = HttpServer.create(new InetSocketAddress(9212), 0);
    server.createContext("/test", new MyHandler());
    server.setExecutor(null); // creates a default executor
    server.start();

    Thread.sleep(10);


    Map<String,String> headers = map("foo", "bar", "fun", "sun");

    String response = HTTP.postBodyWithContentType("http://localhost:9212/test", headers, "text/plain", "hi mom");

    System.out.println(response);

    assertTrue(response.contains("hi mom"));
    assertTrue(response.contains("Fun=[sun], Foo=[bar]"));


    response = HTTP.postBodyWithCharset("http://localhost:9212/test", headers, "text/plain", "UTF-8", "hi mom");

    System.out.println(response);

    assertTrue(response.contains("hi mom"));
    assertTrue(response.contains("Fun=[sun], Foo=[bar]"));

    response = HTTP.postBodyWithHeaders("http://localhost:9212/test", headers, "hi mom");

    System.out.println(response);

    assertTrue(response.contains("hi mom"));
    assertTrue(response.contains("Fun=[sun], Foo=[bar]"));


    response = HTTP.get("http://localhost:9212/test");

    System.out.println(response);


    response = HTTP.getWithHeaders("http://localhost:9212/test", headers);

    System.out.println(response);

    assertTrue(response.contains("Fun=[sun], Foo=[bar]"));



    response = HTTP.getWithContentType("http://localhost:9212/test", headers, "text/plain");

    System.out.println(response);

    assertTrue(response.contains("Fun=[sun], Foo=[bar]"));



    response = HTTP.getWithCharSet("http://localhost:9212/test", headers, "text/plain", "UTF-8");

    System.out.println(response);

    assertTrue(response.contains("Fun=[sun], Foo=[bar]"));

    Thread.sleep(10);

    server.stop(0);


}

@Test
public void testPostBody() throws Exception {

    HttpServer server = HttpServer.create(new InetSocketAddress(9220), 0);
    server.createContext("/test", new MyHandler());
    server.setExecutor(null); // creates a default executor
    server.start();

    Thread.sleep(10);


    Map<String,String> headers = map("foo", "bar", "fun", "sun");

    String response = HTTP.postBody("http://localhost:9220/test", "hi mom");

    assertTrue(response.contains("hi mom"));


    Thread.sleep(10);

    server.stop(0);


}

@Test(expected = RuntimeException.class)
public void testSad() throws Exception {

    HttpServer server = HttpServer.create(new InetSocketAddress(9213), 0);
    server.createContext("/test", new MyHandler());
    server.setExecutor(null); // creates a default executor
    server.start();

    Thread.sleep(10);


    Map<String,String> headers = map("foo", "bar", "fun", "sun");

    String response = HTTP.postBodyWithContentType("http://localhost:9213/foo", headers, "text/plain", "hi mom");

    System.out.println(response);

    assertTrue(response.contains("hi mom"));
    assertTrue(response.contains("Fun=[sun], Foo=[bar]"));

    Thread.sleep(10);

    server.stop(0);


}

你可以在这里找到其余的:

https://github.com/RichardHightower/boon

我的目标是以更简单的方式提供人们想要做的常见事情....


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奇怪的是,在 doPost 方法有一个 charset param,用于设置请求标头,但随后数据用一些硬编码的字符集写入 IO.CHARSET。一个bug? - Vit Khudenko


更新

新的HTTP客户端随Java 9一起提供,但作为一部分   孵化器模块命名 jdk.incubator.httpclient。孵化器模块是   一种将非最终API放在开发人员手中的方法   API将在未来完成或删除   发布。

在Java 9中,您可以发送一个 GET 请求如下:

// GET
HttpResponse response = HttpRequest
    .create(new URI("http://www.stackoverflow.com"))
    .headers("Foo", "foovalue", "Bar", "barvalue")
    .GET()
    .response();

然后你可以检查返回的 HttpResponse

int statusCode = response.statusCode();
String responseBody = response.body(HttpResponse.asString());

由于这个新的HTTP客户端在 java.httpclient  jdk.incubator.httpclient 模块,你应该在你的。中声明这种依赖 module-info.java 文件:

module com.foo.bar {
    requires jdk.incubator.httpclient;
}

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